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Cytocompatibility and early inflammatory response of human endothelial cells in direct culture with Mg-Zn-Sr alloys

posted Nov 17, 2016, 9:22 PM by Huinan Liu   [ updated May 19, 2017, 3:26 PM ]
Cipriano AF*, Sallee A*, Tayoba M*, Cortez Alcaraz MC*, Lin A*, Guan RG, Zhao ZY*, Tayoba M*, Sanchez J*, and Liu HCytocompatibility and Early Inflammatory Response of Human Endothelial Cells in Direct Culture with Mg-Zn-Sr AlloysActa Biomaterialia. 16: 30547-5, 2016. Epub ahead of print 10/13/2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.10.020. (PMID: 27746360)

Crystalline Mg-Zinc (Zn)-Strontium (Sr) ternary alloys consist of elements naturally present in the human body and provide attractive mechanical and biodegradable properties for a variety of biomedical applications. The first objective of this study was to investigate the degradation and cytocompatibility of four Mg-4Zn-xSr alloys (x = 0.15, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt%; designated as ZSr41A, B, C, and D respectively) in the direct culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. The second objective was to investigate, for the first time, the early-stage inflammatory response in cultured HUVECs as indicated by the induction of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The results showed that the 24-h in vitro degradation of the ZSr41 alloys containing a β-phase with a Zn/Sr at% ratio ∼1.5 was significantly faster than the ZSr41 alloys with Zn/Sr at% ∼1. Additionally, the adhesion density of HUVECs in the direct culture but not in direct contact with the ZSr41 alloys for up to 24 h was not adversely affected by the degradation of the alloys. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6 mM Mg2+ ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on HUVEC responses. In contrast, the significantly higher, yet non-cytotoxic, Zn2+ ion concentration from the degradation of ZSr41D alloy was likely the cause for the initially higher VCAM-1 expression on cultured HUVECs. Lastly, analysis of the HUVEC-ZSr41 interface showed near-complete absence of cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, most likely caused by either a high local alkalinity, change in surface topography, and/or surface composition. The direct culture method used in this study was proposed as a valuable tool for studying the design aspects of Zn-containing Mg-based biomaterials in vitro, in order to engineer solutions to address current shortcomings of Mg alloys for vascular device applications.