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Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles

posted May 18, 2016, 3:31 PM by Huinan Liu   [ updated Sep 29, 2016, 9:42 AM ]
Wetteland CL*, Nguyen NYT*, and Liu H. "Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles."Acta biomaterialia 35 (2016): 341-356.

This article reports the quantitative relationship between the concentration of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and its distinct biological activities towards mammalian cells and infectious bacteria for the first time. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the viability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and infectious bacteria (both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis) showed a concentration-dependent behavior in vitro. The critical concentrations of MgO nanoparticles identified in this study provided valuable guidelines for biomaterial design toward potential clinical translation. BMSCs density increased significantly when cultured in 200 μg/mL of MgO in comparison to the Cells Only control without MgO. The density of BMSCs decreased significantly after culture in the media with 500 μg/mL or more of MgO. Concentrations at or above 1000 μg/mL of MgO resulted in complete BMSCs death. Quantification of colony forming units (CFU) revealed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of MgO for E. coli and S. epidermidis was 1200 μg/mL. The addition of MgO nanoparticles into the cultures increased the pH and Mg2+ ion concentration in the respective culture media, which might have played a role in the observed cell responses but not the main factors. E. coli and S. epidermidis still proliferated significantly at alkaline pH up to 10 or with supplemental Mg2+ dosages up to 50 mM, indicating bactericidal properties of MgO are beyond the effects of increased media pH and Mg2+ ion concentrations. MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 200 μg/mL provided dual benefits of promoting BMSC proliferation while reducing bacterial adhesion, which should be further studied for potential medical implant applications. The use of free MgO nanoparticles yielded detrimental effects to BMSCs in concentrations above 300 μg/mL. We recommend further study into MgO nanoparticle as a coating material or as a part of a composite.

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